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Encyclopedia

4th Anti Money Laundering Directive (4AMLD)

What is the 4th Anti Money Laundering Directive? The 4th Anti Money Laundering Directive or ‘4AMLD’ is the EU response to the FATF 40 recommendations dated February 2012 and was required to be incorporated by EU member states by 26th June 2017. It follows the 3AMLD and is proceeded by the 5AMLD. Below is a

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5th Anti Money Laundering Directive (5AMLD)

What is the 5th Anti Money Laundering Directive? The 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive or ‘5AMLD’ is a European Union directive notable for being the first to set out regulatory guidelines on anti-money laundering with the use of crypto assets. 5AMLD came into effect on January 10th, 2020. As well as the inclusion of crypto-businesses in

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Anti Money Laundering (AML)

What is money laundering (ML)? Money laundering is the process of ‘cleaning’ illicit financial gain from criminal activity to make the funds appear legal. Typically, this involves three parts; the placement, layering and integration of tainted funds. Placement of illicit funds entails criminals inserting funds into the financial system (i.e. opening a bank account). The

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Asset Confiscation

Confiscation or forfeiture takes place through a judicial or administrative procedure that transfers the ownership of specified funds or other assets to the state(s). Upon transfer, the person(s) or entity (ies) that held an interest in the specified funds or other assets at the time of the confiscation or forfeiture lose all rights priorly exercised

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Bank Secrecy Act

What is the Bank Secrecy Act? The Bank Secrecy Act or ‘BSA‘ is the primary U.S. anti-money laundering regulatory statute (Title 31, U.S. Code Sections 5311- 5355) enacted in 1970 and most notably amended by the USA PATRIOT Act in 2001 in response to the terrorism threat of 9/11. Money laundering (ML) is a big

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Beneficiary (beneficial owner)

The term beneficial owner has two different definitions depending on the context:· The natural person who ultimately owns or controls an account through which a transaction is being conducted.or· The natural persons who have significant ownership of, as well as those who exercise ultimate effective control over, a legal person or arrangement. By identifying the

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Blacklisted Addresses

An internal list of names (including places, persons, entities, and individuals) that are screened to identify any sanctions exposure, in addition to government and vendor-maintained sanctions lists. Other potential additions to a firm’s internal blacklist may come from OFAC advisories and other warnings that list entities that did not merit being placed on the SDN

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Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

A Central Bank Digital Currency is a blockchain-based fiat currency issued by a central bank. CBDCs seek to leverage blockchain’s immutability, transaction speeds and costs with a country’s fiat currency for a more accountable and efficient system.

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Clustering Algorithms

Clustering algorithms are used to identify blockchain addresses belonging to the same owner by analytical means. Good clustering algorithms can identify hundreds of thousands of suspect’s blockchain addresses just based on one address confirmed as belonging to the suspect. This includes the determination of suspects’ addresses on different blockchain networks. In most cases clustering analysis gives the level

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Combatting the Financing of Terrorism (CFT)

Combatting the Financing of Terrorism or ‘CFT’ are a set of procedures deployed by obliged entities to ensure that the financial system and intermediaries are not used to facilitate the funding of terrorist acts and groups. Terrorist groups need funding to recruit and support members, plan operations and have a logistics hub. By having proper

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